Hello heyooo guys!! Welcome back to my blog! Yeayyyy……. Now, I would like to share about the interesting topic.. So, stay tuned on my blog guys! 😊
Learning the spoken langauge guiding principles
Meaning must come first : if children do not understand the spoken language, they cannot learn it.
To learn discourse skills, children need both to participate in discourse and to build up knowledge and skills for participation.
Discourse and discourse events
Discourse is contrasted with text to emphasise that it concern use of the language.
Contrast to sentence, when it refers to piece of language longer than sentence.
1. Children’s drive to find meaning
As children move through infancy, they begin to communicate with others about things in their share world, and develop their vocabulary of labels alongside their ability to categorise (Locke 1993).
2. Why teachers need to check that meaning is accesible
Children are importantly different in this respect because it takes some years for them to become equal participants in interaction, and to see that each participants has responsibility for making themselve understood to the other (Richard 1993; Meadows 1993; Anderson and Lynch 1988).
3. Meaning in speaking and listening
Listening can be seen as (primarily) the active use of language to access other people’s meanings, whereas speaking is the active use of language to express meanings so that other people can make sense of them.
Analysis of a task-in-action
○The setting and the task
○Language used in the task
○Use of formulaic language
○Selecting and adapting language on-line
Discourse skills development in childhood:
○Conversation and extended talk
According to Brown and Yule 1983
Conversational interaction and extended talk are the two major types of discourse that can be developed in both first and foreign languages.
The key differences between conversation and extended talk are length of turns and degree of interaction.
Development of conversational skills in childhood
○The maturation of social and cognitive understanding over the 5-12 age range has implications for foreign language use and learning. When children are asked to take part in conversations that are beyond their development, they cannot fullt partucipate and may be forced to repeat without understanding.
○As listeners, they understand other people’s talk relative to their current level of social and cognitive resources.
○Children up to age seven seem to blame themselves if they do not understand something said to them, rather tahan judging what was said to them might have been inadequate.
○Research have proved that training is only effective for older children above about eigth years of age.
○Growing up children become aware of how their and other people think, act and communicate.
○Children seem to begin to really develop their understanding of other people’s actions and minds around four years of age, it takes much of childhood to gather enough experience and use of it to construct a full awareness of how people operate socially and mentally.
○ Familiarity of content and context in foreign language use will help children as speakers and as listeners.
Developing children’s discourse repertoires
Learners of a foreign language increase their range of repertoire of discourse skills and types.
○Through interaction with an increaing range people.
○In different situations.
○With different goals and different topics.
○Moving from the familiar settings of home, family and calssroom to wider situations.
○Types of talk, includes: Narrative, Description, Instructional, Argument, Opinions, etc.
Effective support for children’s foreign :
language discourse skills .Support through motivational topics,
Support through task structure,
Suppport through language practice.
Short activities for learning the spoken language
Listening and doing
1. Listen and Identify
3. Listen and take away
4. Find the odd one out
5. Listen and put
Listening and saying
1. Look and say
2. Listen and choose
3. Listen and sort
4. Tennis Game
5. Guess my animal-questions
6. Guess my animal-actions
Short activities for learning the spoken language
Focus on sounds in discourse
1. Poems and chants
2. Tongue twisters
Supporting the spoken langauge with written language
Using dialogues and discourse
The language learning opportunities of dialogues
Dialogues may offer :
○Genuine samples of spoken language
○contextualised sentence patterns that are not very like the spoken language
○written sentences that resemble what people might say
practice of sentence patterns-a grammatical drill in disguise
○scripts, rather like short theatrical plays.
Other sources of spoken disources
I wanna share my experience to all you.
I had an experience 2 years ago when I was teaching at a “Sahabat Anak.” The activities are carried out by faculty organizations. I was so happy to be a praticipant of my faculty for participating in that activity that four people could be the candidate. We were chosen to take part in the activity because at the time we were appointed to commission 4: public service.
When we got there, we did a lot of things, such as: ask for their favorite fruit, guess the names of the fruits and compose song lyrics, It’s all in English then they practice it. We split into groups. The activity is carried out by 8 faculty in different materials and ways. They are very happy and easily bored and loves to learn English.
That’s what menik and I did last week, which is using three of the methods.
It is a useful method and is ideal for students because they can exercise the ability to speak English, to be creative, to work together in groups and to make the class feel exciting and challenging.
Both of them, The things remind me if I become a Teacher, I need to be able to create a wonderful atmosphere by giving creative materials and according to the needs of schools in Indonesia.
As a Teacher we sould being a fun teacher, creative and give the motivation to all studnents or being role model to recieved their goals in the future.
Thank you for visiting my blog. I hope it can be useful and motivating for all of you who are learning English. See u in the next topic. 😍❤😊😇